● Data Validation – The most common web application security weakness is the failure to properly validate input from the client or environment. This weakness leads to almost all of the major vulnerabilities in applications, such as interpreter Injection, locale/Unicode attacks, file system attacks and buffer overflows. Data from the client should never be trusted for the client has every possibility to tamper with the data
● Authentication – Is a process where an entity proves the identity of another entity, typically through credentials, such as a username and password.Depending on your requirements, there are several available authentication mechanisms to choose from. If they are not correctly chosen and implemented, the authentication mechanism can expose vulnerabilities that attackers can exploit to gain access to your system.The storage of passwords and user credentials is an issue from a defense in depth approach, but also from a compliance standpoint
● Session Management – Is a process by which a server maintains the state of an entity interacting with it. This is required for a server to remember how to react to subsequent requests throughout a transaction. Sessions are maintained on the server by a session identifier which can be passed back and forward between the client and server when transmitting and receiving requests. Sessions should be unique per user and computationally very difficult to predict.
● Authorization – Authorization issues cover a wide array of layers in a web application; from the functional authorization of a user to gain access to a particular function of the application at the application layer, to the Database access authorization and least privilege issues at the persistence layer. So what to look for when performing a code review? From an attack perspective, the most common issues are a result of curiosity and also exploitation of vulnerabilities such as SQL injection.
● Cryptography – Cryptography provides for security of data at rest (via encryption), enforcement of data integrity (via hashing/digesting), and non-repudiation of data (via signing). As a result, the coding in a secure manner of any of the above cryptographic processes within source code must conform in principle to the use of standard cryptographically secure algorithms with strong key sizes. The use of non-standard cryptographic algorithms, custom implementation of cryptography (standard & non-standard) algorithms, use of standard algorithms which are cryptographically insecure (e.g. DES), and the implementation of insecure keys can weaken the overall security posture of any application. Implementation of the aforementioned methods enables the use of known crypt-analytic tools and techniques to decrypt sensitive data.
● Error Handling – Error Handling is important in a number of ways. It may affect the state of the application, or leak system information to a user. The initial failure to prevent the error may cause the application to traverse into an insecure state. Weak error handling also aids the attacker, as the errors returned may assist them in constructing correct attack vectors. A generic error page for most errors is recommended.
● Logging – Logging is the recording of information into storage that details who performed what and when they did it (like an audit trail). This can also cover debug messages implemented during development, as well as any messages reflecting problems or states within the application. It should be an audit of everything that the business deems important to track about the application’s use. Logging provides a detective method to ensure that the other security mechanisms being used are performing correctly